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Aspirin (ASA, acetylsalicylic acid) (8/18/17) http://healthfully.org/rc/id3.html, on aspirin http://healthfully.org/aspirin/, /nsaids
Reduces risk for cancer of Breast 39%, Colorectal 63%, Esophageal 73%, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 60%, Ovarian 47%, Melanoma 55%, Prostate 39%, Stomach 62%, and other cancers including Bladder, Skin, Gastric & Leukemia. Aspirin increases survival of stages I, II, & III cancers: Breast 66%, Colon by 74%, and by extension all adenocarcinomas. Aspirin reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s Disease 60%, and Heart Attacks 51%, and its anti-inflammatory action inhibits atherogenesis thus CVD; 350 mg or more, not low dose, see below. Summaries of ASA on cancer protection and on atherosclerosis protection

Aspirin (ASA,
acetylsalicylic acid)
(1/13/14) http://healthfully.org/rc/id3.html
& on aspirin http://healthfully.org/aspirin/
& /nsaids

risk for cancer of
Breast 39%, Colorectal 63%, Esophageal 73%, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 60%,
Ovarian 47%, Melanoma 55%, Prostate 39%, Stomach 62%,
and other
cancers including Bladder, Skin, & Adult Leukemia.  Aspirin increases
survival of stages
I, II, & III Cancers
, Breast 66%, Colon by 74%, and by extension all adenocarcinomas.  Aspirin reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s Disease 60%, and Heart Attacks 51%, and anti-inflammatory
(CVD); results are cited in medical journal articles below. 


Goodman & Gilman, 11th Ed. P. 690:  “Although aspirin is regarded as the standard against which other drugs should be compared for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, many clinicians favor the use of other NSAIDs perceived to have better gastrointestinal tolerability, even though this perception remains unproven by convincing clinical trials.” 

{As I pointed out, most test use a a low does of a coated NSAID compared to an uncoated aspirin.--jk}


It has come to light in 05 that all the NSAIDs but aspirin increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes by accelerating the rate of plaque formation (viz. arteriosclerosis)—a fact few doctors are aware of.

There are at Recommended concise 3 major articles on aspirin:  aspirin, aspirin’s
cancer protection
, Aspirin
inhibits atherosclerosis
.  These benefits explains why pharma and the NIH have opposed the use of aspirin. 


Aspirin (ASA, acetylsalicylic acid) (7/17/16) http://healthfully.org/rc/id3.html, on aspirin http://healthfully.org/aspirin/, /nsaids

Reduces risk for cancer of Breast 39%, Colorectal 63%, Esophageal 73%, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 60%, Ovarian 47%, Melanoma 55%, Prostate 39%, Stomach 62%, and other cancers including Bladder, Skin, Gastric & Leukemia.  Aspirin increases survival of stages I, II, & III cancers:  Breast 66%, Colon by 74%, and by extension all adenocarcinomas.  Aspirin reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s Disease 60%, and Heart Attacks 51%, and its anti-inflammatory action inhibits atherogenesis thus CVD; 350 mg or more, not low dose, see below.  Summaries of ASA on cancer protection and on atherosclerosis protection

Why doesn’t everyone know of these benefits and doctors recommend a 325 mgs of aspirin daily?   The short answer is corporatization of medicine.  The perception in the press is the opposite of the truth, a truth which was succinctly stated by Harvard Prof. Marcia Angell, MD.:  “If we had set out to design the worst system that we could imagine, we couldn’t have imagined on as bad as we have” her video.  The list of benefits from taking aspirin (acetic salicylic acid) long-term is in the next section.  These benefits explain pharma’s multifaceted attack, which includes use of too low a dose (85 mg), coated aspirin which takes hours to dissolve, scare about ulcers & Reyes syndrome (bottom for rebuttals).   We have tobacco science generated by pharma.  However aspirin in its bioactive form of salicylic acid is found in plants as part for its immune function.  Given its wide distribution in plants mammals have evolved similar and other healthful uses, and they/us even biosynthesize the molecule—click on link.  Find out below why aspirin clearly should be your first choice.        

The recorded history of aspirin starts with the ancient Egyptians.  The Greeks used an extract of willow bark and leaves which contain the plant hormone salicylic acid.  Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in the establishment of resistance to microbial pathogens in many plants” at  (ASA is rapidly hydrolyzed in the stomach to salicylic acid, its active form.)  Hippocrates, the Greek physician, 420 BC wrote of its use to relieve pain & fever.  The Romans Pliny the Elder, and later Galen added its use as skin ulcer treatment.  The drug remained thereafter in the European pharmacopeia, and became widely used to treat malaria by the 1760s.  In 1853 a German chemist modified bitter salicylic acid (SA) to the less caustic ASA by adding an acetate group, and in 1899 the German dye and drug company Bayer marketed it as aspirin. 

“For almost 100 years the salicylates [aspirin family of drugs] have retained their preeminent position” Goodman and Gilman Pharmacology, 11th Ed, 2006, p. 692.  It is the standard against which all rheumatoid arthritis medication should be measured” supra 690.  3.5 gram is the recommended dose--Merck Manual 1987, p. 960, and same in earlier editions.  In 1958 production peaked at 20,000 tons (3 lb. per person).  In the late 50s aspirin’s share of sales fell to the heavily-marketed newer NSAIDs.  Following the 1973 discovery that aspirin reduces the incidence of heart attacks (MIs) by reducing blood clotting (thrombi) that completes occlusion of a coronary artery when plaque is leaked.  By the 1980s it regained its number 1 position, but too low a dose for prevent of cancer, CVD, etc.  Even at 1300 mg/d, [long-term] 8% of subjects were resistant” AHA to its anticoagulant action (MI protection).  Its biological half-life is dose dependent---2-3 hours for low dose and up to 15-30 hours for large doses. About 50 to 80% of aspirin is bound to albumin protein, while the rest remains in active, ionized state.   From 80 to 100% is excreted in the urine, sweat, saliva, and feces.   It has now slipped to 6th, and on my bottle are 15 lines of FDA warnings for stomach bleeding and in children Reyes syndrome.  Is the old wisdom and research false?  Or is it another example of tobacco science used to promote illnesses? 

Pharma had by late 1980s gained control of research and production of information.  Aspirin the drug of choice by your parents and grandparents was “shown” to be unsafe in published tobacco studies.  Pharma drummed into the publics and physicians’ heads that aspirin is ineffective & frequently causes stomach bleeds, ulcers, and Reyes Syndrome in children.  However, as Goodman and Gilman supra 690, “many clinicians favor the use of other NSAIDs perceived to have better gastrointestinal tolerability, even though this perception remains unproven by convincing clinical trials”—ASA's low rate.  As for Reyes syndrome, diagnosis was based on symptoms.  “Between 1980 and 1997, the number of reported cases of Reye’s syndrome decreased from 555 cases in 1980 to about 2 cases per year since 1994… when genetic testing for inborn errors of metabolism…” Moreover a mechanism of cause is lacking:  “in 93% of the cases a viral infection had occurred in the preceding three-week period… and no animal model of Reye’s syndrome has been developed with aspirin” Wiki 2008.  And only 55% salicylate detected, 73% viral infection, yet the FDA’s warning remains on bottles of aspirin against its usage for those under 19, plus gastro-intestinal irritation and bleeding, thus getting parents and their children onto other NSAIDs, all of which increase the risk of MIs and lack protections listed below.  The rise in heart attacks, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, Parkinson’s, and cancer in part results from the reduction in the use of aspirin (other cause high carb diet).  Nearly everyone dies earlier thanks to pharma’s corporate tobacco ethics.   

All NSAIDs (but aspirin) long-term greatly increases risk of MI--American Heart association warning also in journal sources by causing cardiovascular disease through inhibition of COX-2; but only high dose aspirin protects--by 50%.

Age related diseases , main cause is glycation, “of exposure to sugars”, see AEGs.  Aspirin has been shown to be a powerful inhibitor of post-Amadori Maillard reactions” at 2001.  This article describes how aspirin protects the ubiquitous collagen (connective tissue) from damage by reactive chemicals produced from the metabolism of carbohydrates in the destructive process of glycation (Maillard reaction), also. 

ALZHEIMER’S & ALS reduced 60% by COX-2 inhibition--Neurology, 997; 48: 626-632.  Swedish twin matching study shows low dose and other NSAIDs don’t, and Parkinson 56%.  Note:  testosterone and estradiol also greatly reduce risk.   Chronic use of aspirin inhibits beta amyloid-aggregation [the physical sign of Alzheimer’s], at 2001.

Antioxidant effects:  Salicylic acid’s [SA, active form of aspirin] immune action is through “catalase a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen….  It is a very important enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS)… one catalase molecule can convert approximately 5 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each second… also catalyze various metabolites and toxins,” Wiki.  SA could also protect plant and mammalian catalases against inactivation by H2O2 in vitro “, at.  ROS are the major cause of age related degenerative diseases.   For example SA protect fibrinogen.   “In cultured endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein, aspirin (30–300 μM) increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels in a concentration-dependent fashion up to fivefold over basal levels…. Pretreatment with aspirin or bilirubin at low micro-molar concentrations protected endothelial cells [on endothelial damage and Wiki]] from hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity…./ a novel mechanism by which aspirin prevents cellular injury under inflammatory conditions and in cardiovascular disease.” at 2003.  This effect was not demonstrated with other NSAIDs.  “The potent antioxidant property of gentisic acid [ASA metabolite] may partly account for the anti-atherogenic effects of aspirin”, at 2005.    This affects has shown to protect numerous tissues/organs such as eye lens, preventing cataracts at 1988. Aspirin protects against the reactive oxygen species produced by sugars and their metabolites (a process known as glycation)

Anti-inflammatory effect is “not by direct inhibition of COX like most other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  (NSAIDs) but instead by suppression of the expression of the enzyme (via a yet-unelucidated mechanism)” Wiki, thus unlike the other NSAID which increase the risk of heart attack by 50% or more, aspirin lowers the risk, “These findings provide direct in vivo evidence for an anti-inflammatory action for both aspirin-triggered LXA4 and LXA4 stable analogues and their site of action in vivo, at 1987. Aspirin attenuates beta-caternin/TCF 4 signaling, at 2001.  Note, Peter Gotzsche expresses doubt of NSAIDs ability to reduce inflammation, and this is supported by measure of finger diameter. 

Atherogenesis slowed:  “strong evidence that atherosclerosis is slowed down in a dose term” by 47%, and stopped. Mechanisms: By NO endothelial cells oxidative damage, inhibits leukocyte attacks, cytokinies,  CD36, FFA & diabetes.  For papers on developing the use of aspirin for atherosclerosis and for cancer, and limited value of chemotherapy.

BREAST CANCER SURVIVAL (long), UP 67% compared to no aspirin use stages 1-3; by necrosis factor TNF, and. Mechanism: COX-2 which increases prostaglandin which correlates to metastasis and carcinogenesis, which aspirin blocks.     

CANCERS VARIOUS TISSUES RISK: reduction of63% colon, 39% breast, 36% lung, and 39% prostate cancer. Significant risk reductions were also observed for esophageal 73%, stomach 62%, and ovarian cancer 47%” also.  Epidemiologic studies of malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's disease, and adult leukemia also found that NSAIDs are protective; melanoma 55%.  Other studies have shown that aspirin promotes the death of abnormal cells through the natural mechanism of apoptosis by stimulating tumor necrosis factor NF-B, by p38 & JNK, mechanism.  Long term, but low dose is insufficient. 

Diabetes treatment of type 2 (T2D) with high dose aspirin or other salicylates has a positive effect upon obesity and diet induced insulin resistance; thus by improving the function of insulin it lowers serum glucose level through improved in glucose metabolism.  Going back over a century salicylates (aspirins) were used to treat T2D.  Noting that “rheumatic fever and diabetes rarely coexist,… an intensive 2-week course of aspirin [5 gm daily] abolished glycosuria and lowered the fasting blood sugar to normal… to moderately severe diabetics” BMJ-1953 also 2001, and review.  On low carb diet to treat T2D and treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and reverse Insulin resistance—see diet articles at id.14 & id 15.

 Heart attack deaths lowered 51% for higher dose; it prevents aspirin resistance, and.  For unstable angina, a 236% reduction in death, cardiac event 52% meta-study; previous MI 2 studies by 44%.  Method by artery infection.  “Reduction of stroke & death of 25% to 42% using 900 to 1300 mg aspirin daily” AHA.   Statins block aspirin.  As a powerful antioxidant ASA protect fibrinogen from oxidation a key clotting factor, thus thereby reducing the risk of/extent of a clot forming during a MI or other ischemic event, at 1998.  ASA stops atherosclerosis summary. 

Metabolic syndrome is a family of conditions causal for MI that results from the high carbohydrate with sugars western diet, see CVD.  An experiment in fructose fed rats that were after 6 weeks given aspirin at an equivalent to our 975 mgs.  Aspirin reversed all of the signs of metabolic syndrome :  hypertension, promoted vascular remodeling, reverse insulin resistance, and prevention of oxidative stress which is causal for endothelial dysfunction, at 2008, 2001 for mechanism.

Pulmonary embolism following high-risk surgery, 6% versus 15.4% placebo--p 231, similar with 1,200 mg, and, and 3 gm.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) an autoimmune disease causes inflammation and joint pain.  Merck Manual 1987, p. 960, recommends a dose “from 3 to 7.5 gm, the average 4.5 gm” for RA.  Goodman & Gilman supra, aspirin is “the gold standard” for RA.  As anti-inflammatory drug slows the auto immune attack, reduces pain, at while also lowering the risk for CDV. 

Osteoarthritis (OA) a degenerative joint disease involving degradation of joints including articular cartilage  and  subchondral bone, for which aspirin promotes healing & relieves pain, and “is the drug of choice” Merck supra 973. Aspirin can inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption activity in a dose-dependent manner, thus exerting its anti-osteoporosis effect” at 2013, also, and,  and.  ASA has positive effect on bone remodeling.

Longevity:  A series of experiments have shown that aspirin extends median life in C. elegans by 25%--not maximum lifespan.  Several mechanisms have been uncovered and published in numerous journal articles:  1) effect on inulin like signal through transcription factors DAF16/FOXO genes, 2) increases catalase and SOD transcripts, and 3) acetylating about 20% of mitochondrial proteins, and slightly less non-mitochondrial protein.  Median extension also was found in mice.  By using the flat worm gains from neuro and MI protection are not present—YouTube, 35 min.   

NOTES:  bleeds stomach & stroke:  the typical response of a physician or nurse to a GI bleed is to blame aspirin and ignore other medications.  The lifetime risk of an ulcer goes from 2% to 4% with a daily dose of 1000 mg.  The stomach and intestine lining are protected by a mucus membrane.  The Helicobacter pylori bacteria causes 80% of GI ulcers by boring under the mucus membrane.  This permits the stomach’s hydrochloric acid (HCl), digestive bile and drugs to irritate the lining.  However, digestive bile excreted into the duodenum is basic and neutralize hydrochloric acid and aspirin. There are four times as many ulcers in the duodenum than the stomach, thus aspirin is minor causal factor.   At 5 years a 22% increase for 325 mg aspirin (169 ulcers aspirin vs. 138 placebo). The rarer risk of hemorrhage stroke is offset “[net] reduction of [stroke] 25% to 42% using 900 to 1300 mg aspirin daily” AHA.  Tums is best antacid; avoid PPIs,        

Anticoagulant drugs Warfarin (Coumadin), Plavix, and other have a much higher risk of serious bleeding episodes.  Warfarin accounts for an estimated 33,000 hospital admission for hemorrhaging.  Standard treatment for arrhythmia (fibrillation) includes an anticoagulant for life, but the vast majority of cases the risk rewards don’t justify the use (the risk of bleeding increases over the years).  And there are other side effects, including large red blotches under the skin.  Journal articles down-play bleeding by counting 2 or more pints of blood.  Except for Warfarin there is no antidote for bleeding, thus pharma’s prescription choice causes far more deaths.  Greater protection comes from aspirin the Cochrane Review, and the AHA agreed.  Aspirin in the medicinal dose of 325-975 mg is a healthier and safer choice.

For pain and inflammation:   By Pharma exaggerating the risks and ignoring benefits, physicians believe there are better alternatives for pain such as Celebrex, a blockbuster which triples MI risk—band in EU & Canada.  Pharma 30 years ago dropped the dosage to the less effective 325 mg thereby causing users to switch to heavily advertised alternatives Advil, Tylenol, and Aleve.  The once standard 1,000 mgs to start and 500 mg is dose comparable to Advil & Alive.  Studies justify the higher dose of 900-1,300 mg.  Enteric coated takes over an hour to dissolve, thus not for prompt relief, and variable absorption rate.  There is no advantage from adding an NSAID to an opioid analgesic, except for inflammation.          

Aspirin (salicylic acid)[1] is natural:  These benefits occur because aspirin (salicylic acid) has evolved salubrious biological functions.  Plants make salicylic acid to fight infects and so do mammals including humans—see, and.  Given the complex of mammals’ biological systems, like with so many other hormones and simple compounds, mammals have evolved multiple functions for salicylic acid.  Because it is found in many of the plants we eat as part of their immune system, mammals evolved similar functions for salicylic acid; it is thus quite safe. 

Recommendation:  For all NSAID uses.  For minor pain & anti-inflammatory 975 mg (the old standard) to start, than as needed to 4 gm daily.  Enteric coated has delayed action and should not be used for acute pain.  For arthritis, 2.5 to grams per day (see Merck Manual 1992 and before); for protection from cancer 325 mg; for cancer treatment 1,300 mg daily. For arrhythmia risk of blood clot, 650 mg daily.  For heart burn use Tums a source of calcium--protein pump (PPI) inhibitors the worst choice.   Avoid pharma’s anticoagulants, 975 mg aspirin daily, best choice.  Atherosclerosis is caused by infection in artery walls is reduced by aspirin, thus prevention MI, stroke, and hypertension.  Prevention is through anti-inflammatory effect of 325 mg with meals.  From 92 to 95 I was prescribed 2.5 grams for chronic back pain involving muscle spasms.  A daily 15 minute abdomen strengthening routine cured this disability.  Having read that aspirin prevents colon cancer in Science News, I decided to continue taking aspirin.  Subsequent research, starting in 2004 with posting the website healthfully.org, convinced me that I was doing the right taking 325-650 mg uncoated daily for risk reductions listed above, and I don’t get heart burn, ever.      

[1] Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is readily converted (hydrolyzed) in the stomach to salicylic acid, and in this form is bio-active. 

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Health is essential for quality of life.  Given the proclivity for injurious behavior (the prime examples being obesity, tobacco, soldiering, and recreational drugs) I can only conclude that the rational function of the brain is primarily social, including the generation of reasons for what is inexcusable; and the rest of what we do is quite similar to the actions of our cats and dogs.  I wish that all people would develop a love of philosophy (the term in Greek means love of wisdom).  With such love there would be a commitment to hold beliefs in proportion to the evidence in support there of, and there would be a drive for to live a truly moral life. 



Disclaimer:  The information, facts, and opinions provided here is not a substitute for professional advice.  It only indicates what JK believes, does, or would do.  Always consult your primary care physician for medical advice, diagnosis, and treatment.